The GAHP Executive Committee has created a reference list relevant to the study of cardiac disease in great apes.  References are organized by subject under each heading below. If your institution has trouble accessing any of these references, please email for assistance in getting a reprint.

GAHP Proceedings:

A summary of our 2015 GAHP Workshop at the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians meeting is available here: GAHP2015WorkshopSummary (pdf).

In 2012, the GAHP Executive Committee developed a white paper on cardiac disease in captive great apes, which is available here: GAHP_WhitePaper2012 (pdf).

Most Recent CVD Publications:

Baldessari A., Snyder J, Ahrens J, Murnane R. 2013. Fatal myocardial fibrosis in an aged chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).  Pathobiology of Aging and Age-Related Diseases 3:21073.

Ely JJ, Zavaskis T, Lammey ML. 2013. Hypertension increases with aging and obesity in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Biol 32(1):79-87.

Nunamaker EA, Lee DR, Lammey ML. 2012. Chronic diseases in captive geriatric female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Comp Med 62(2):131-6.

McManamon R, Lowenstine L. 2012. Cardiovascular disease in great apes. In: Miller RE, Fowler ME, editors. Fowler’s Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Current Therapy. 1 ed.

Less EH, Kuhar CW, Dennis PM, Lukas KE. 2012. Assessing inactivity in zoo gorillas using keeper ratings and behavioral data. Appl Anim Behav Sci 137(1-2):74-79.

Kawashima T, Sato F. 2012. Detailed comparative anatomy of the extrinsic cardiac nerve plexus and postnatal reorganization of the cardiac position and innervation in the great apes: orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees. Anat Rec (Hoboken) 295(3):438-53.

Gibson-Corley KN, Haynes JS. 2012. Disseminated T-cell lymphoma in a bonobo (Pan paniscus). J Vet Diagn Invest 24(1):238-40.

Adami C, Wenker C, Hoby S, Bergadano A. 2012. Evaluation of effectiveness, safety and reliability of intramuscular medetomidine-ketamine for captive great apes. Vet Rec 171(8):196.

Terio KA, Kinsel MJ, Raphael J, Mlengeya T, Lipende I, Kirchhoff CA, Gilagiza B, Wilson ML, Kamenya S, Estes JD et al. 2011. Pathologic lesions in chimpanzees (Pan trogylodytes schweinfurthii) from Gombe National Park, Tanzania, 2004-2010. J Zoo Wildl Med 42(4):597-607.

Rush EM, Ogburn AL, Monroe D. 2011. Clinical management of a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with a cardiac resynchronization therapy device. J Zoo Wildl Med 42(2):263-76.

Murphy HW, Dennis P, Devlin W, Meehan T, Kutinsky I. 2011. Echocardiographic parameters of captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). J Zoo Wildl Med 42(4):572-9.

Lammey ML, Jackson R, Ely JJ, Lee DR, Sleeper MM. 2011. Use of an implantable loop recorder in the investigation of arrhythmias in adult captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Comp Med 61(1):71-5.

Lammey ML, Ely JJ, Zavaskis T, Videan E, Sleeper MM. 2011. Effects of aging and blood contamination on the urinary protein-creatinine ratio in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 50(3):374-7.

Ely JJ, Zavaskis T, Lammey ML, Sleeper MM, Lee DR. 2011. Association of brain-type natriuretic protein and cardiac troponin I with incipient cardiovascular disease in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Comp Med 61(2):163-9.

Ely JJ, Zavaskis T, Lammey ML, Rick Lee D. 2011. Blood pressure reference intervals for healthy adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). J Med Primatol 40(3):171-80.

Dietary Effects (General):

Aufreiter S, Mahaney WC, Milner MW, Huffman MA, Hancock RG, Wink M, Reich M. 2001. Mineralogical and chemical interactions of soils eaten by chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains and Gombe Stream National Parks, Tanzania. J Chem Ecol. 27(2):285-311.

Chouliaras GL, Kattamis A, Berdoukas V, Gotsis ED, Mavrogeni S, Ladis V. Cardiac magnetic resonance in transfusion dependent thalassaemia: assessment of iron load and relationship to left ventricular ejection fraction. Br J Haematol. 2010 Nov;151(4):397-401.

Gujja P, Rosing DR, Tripodi DJ, Shizukuda Y. Iron overload cardiomyopathy: better understanding of an increasing disorder. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Sep 21;56(13):1001-12.

Naito Y, Hirotani S, Sawada H, Akahori H, Tsujino T, Masuyama T. Dietary iron restriction prevents hypertensive cardiovascular remodeling in dahl salt-sensitive rats. Hypertension. 2011 Mar;57(3):497-504.

Nelson CA, Greer WE, Morris MD. The distribution of serum high density lipoprotein subfractions in non-human primates. Lipids. 1984 Sep;19(9):656-63.

Schmidt DA, Ellersieck MR, Cranfield MR, Karesh WB. Cholesterol values in free-ranging gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei) and Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2006 Sep;37(3):292-300.

Zegrean M. Association of body iron stores with development of cardiovascular disease in the adult population: a systematic review of the literature. Can J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2009;19(1):26-32.

Dietary Effects (Gorillas):

Calvert JJ, Food selection by western gorillas in relation to food chemistry.  OECOL  65:236-246.

Casimir MJ. Feeding ecology and nutrition of an eastern gorilla group in the Mt. Kahuzi Region (République du Zaïre). Folia Primatol (Basel). 1975;24(2-3):81-136.

Deblauwe I, Janssens GP. New insights in insect prey choice by chimpanzees and gorillas in southeast Cameroon: the role of nutritional value. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2008 Jan;135(1):42-55.

Doran DM, McNeilage A, Greer D, Bocian C, Mehlman P, Shah N. Western lowland gorilla diet and resource availability: new evidence, cross-site comparisons, and reflections on indirect sampling methods. Am J Primatol. 2002 Nov;58(3):91-116.

Ganas J, Ortmann S, Robbins MM. Food preferences of wild mountain gorillas. Am J Primatol. 2008 Oct;70(10):927-38.

Ganas J, Robbins MM. Intrapopulation differences in ant eating in the mountain gorillas of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Primates. 2004 Oct;45(4):275-8.

Kritschevsky D, Davidson LM, Goodman GT, Tepper SA, Mendelsohn D.  1986.  Influence of dietary fiber on lipids and aortic composition of vervet monkeys.  Lipids vol 21:338-341.

Kritschevsky D, Davidson LM, Scott DA, Van der Watt JJ, Mendelsohn D 1988. Effects of dietary fiber in vervet monkeys fed “western” diets.  Lipids 23:1164-1168.

Magliocca F, Gautier-Hion A. Mineral content as a basis for food selection by western lowland gorillas in a forest clearing. Am J Primatol. 2002 Jun;57(2):67-77.

Masi S, Cipolletta C, Robbins MM. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) change their activity patterns in response to frugivory. Am J Primatol. 2009 Feb;71(2):91-100.

Nowell AA, Fletcher AW. Food transfers in immature wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Primates. 2006 Oct;47(4):294-9.

Popovich DG, Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, et al.  The western lowland gorilla diet has implications for the health of humans and other hominoids. J Nutr 1997; 127(10):2000-2005.

Remis MJ. Initial studies on the contributions of body size and gastrointestinal passage rates to dietary flexibility among gorillas. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2000 Jun;112(2):171-80.

Remis MJ. The role of taste in food selection by African apes: implications for niche separation and overlap in tropical forests. Primates. 2006 Jan;47(1):56-64.

Remis MJ. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) as seasonal frugivores: use of variable resources. Am J Primatol. 1997;43(2):87-109.

Rothman JM, Chapman CA, Pell AN. Fiber-bound nitrogen in gorilla diets: implications for estimating dietary protein intake of primates. Am J Primatol. 2008 Jul;70(7):690-4.

Rothman JM, Dierenfeld ES, Hintz HF, Pell AN. Nutritional quality of gorilla diets: consequences of age, sex, and season. Oecologia. 2008 Feb;155(1):111-22.

Rothman JM, Dierenfeld ES, Molina DO, Shaw AV, Hintz HF, Pell AN. Nutritional chemistry of foods eaten by gorillas in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Am J Primatol. 2006 Jul;68(7):675-91.

Rothman JM, Dusinberre K, Pell AN. Condensed tannins in the diets of primates: a matter of methods? Am J Primatol. 2009 Jan;71(1):70-6.

Rothman JM, Van Soest PJ, Pell AN. Decaying wood is a sodium source for mountain gorillas. Biol Lett. 2006 Sep 22;2(3):321-4.

Schneeman BO.  Macroneutrient absorption in Kritschevsky et al (eds) Dietary Fiber: Chemistry, Physiology, Chemistry and Health Effects. NY Plenum Press

Yamagiwa J, Basabose AK. Diet and seasonal changes in sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees at Kahuzi-Biega National Park. Primates. 2006 Jan;47(1):74-90.

Dietary Effects (Orangutans):

Bastian ML, Zweifel N, Vogel ER, Wich SA, van Schaik CP. Diet traditions in wild orangutans. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2010 Oct;143(2):175-87.

Clay AW, Bloomsmith MA, Marr MJ, Maple TL. Systematic investigation of the stability of food preferences in captive orangutans: implications for positive reinforcement training. J Appl Anim Welf Sci. 2009 Oct;12(4):306-13.

Schmidt, D. Orangutan Husbandry Manual Nutrition Chapter.

Fox EA, van Schaik CP, Sitompul A, Wright DN. Intra-and interpopulational differences in orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) activity and diet: implications for the invention of tool use. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2004 Oct;125(2):162-74.

Jaeggi AV, Dunkel LP, Van Noordwijk MA, Wich SA, Sura AA, Van Schaik CP. Social learning of diet and foraging skills by wild immature Bornean orangutans: implications for culture. Am J Primatol. 2010 Jan;72(1):62-71.

Kanamori T, Kuze N, Bernard H, Malim TP, Kohshima S. Feeding ecology of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) in Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia: a 3-year record including two mast fruitings. Am J Primatol. 2010 Sep;72(9):820-40.

Schmidt DA, Kerley MS, Dempsey JL, Porton IJ, Porter JH, Griffin ME, Ellersieck MR, Sadler WC. Fiber digestibility by the orangutan (Pongo abelii): in vitro and in vivo. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2005 Dec; 36(4):571-80.

Seng CF, Meng GY, Abdullah R.   2007.  A comparative study of blood lipids and stress levels between captive and semi-captive orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) under tropical conditions.  Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.  Pp 197-201

Taylor AB. Feeding behavior, diet, and the functional consequences of jaw form in orangutans, with implications for the evolution of Pongo. J Hum Evol. 2006 Apr;50(4):377-93.

Utami SS, Van Hooff JA. Meat-eating by adult female Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). Am J Primatol. 1997;43(2):159-65.

Dietary Effects (Chimpanzees): 

Basabose AK. Diet composition of chimpanzees inhabiting the montane forest of Kahuzi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Am J Primatol. 2002 Sep;58(1):1-21

Hockings KJ, Anderson JR, Matsuzawa T. Use of wild and cultivated foods by chimpanzees at Bossou, Republic of Guinea: feeding dynamics in a human-influenced environment. Am J Primatol. 2009 Aug;71(8):636-46.

Tutin CE, Ham RM, White LJ, Harrison MJ. The primate community of the Lopé Reserve, Gabon: diets, responses to fruit scarcity, and effects on biomass. Am J Primatol. 1997;42(1):1-24.

Dietary Effects (Bonobos):

Fowler A, Hohmann G. Cannibalism in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Lui Kotale. Am J Primatol. 2010 Jun;72(6):509-14.

Hofreiter M, Kreuz E, Eriksson J, Schubert G, Hohmann G. Vertebrate DNA in fecal samples from bonobos and gorillas: evidence for meat consumption or artefact? PLoS One. 2010 Feb 25;5(2):e9419.

Hohmann G, Fruth B. New records on prey capture and meat eating by bonobos at Lui Kotale, Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo. Folia Primatol (Basel). 2008;79(2):103-10.

Hohmann G, Potts K, N’Guessan A, Fowler A, Mundry R, Ganzhorn JU, Ortmann S. Plant foods consumed by Pan: exploring the variation of nutritional ecology across Africa. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2010 Mar;141(3):476-85.

Horn AD. Some observations on the ecology of the bonobo chimpanzee (Pan paniscus, Schwarz 1929) near Lake Tumba, Zaire. Folia Primatol (Basel). 1980;34(3-4):145-69.

Sakamaki T. Coprophagy in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: a possibly adaptive strategy? Primates. 2010 Jan;51(1):87-90.

Surbeck M, Fowler A, Deimel C, Hohmann G. Evidence for the consumption of arboreal, diurnal primates by bonobos (Pan paniscus). Am J Primatol. 2009 Feb;71(2):171-4.

Husbandry and Lifestyle: 

Albus C. Psychological and social factors in coronary heart disease. Ann Med. 2010 Oct;42(7):487-94.

Amici F, Aureli F, Call J. Fission-fusion dynamics, behavioral flexibility, and inhibitory control in primates. Curr Biol. 2008 Sep 23;18(18):1415-9.

Casimir MJ. Feeding ecology and nutrition of an eastern gorilla group in the Mt. Kahuzi Region (République du Zaïre). Folia Primatol (Basel). 1975;24(2-3):81-136.

Doran-Sheehy DM, Boesch C. Behavioral ecology of western gorillas: new insights from the field. Am J Primatol. 2004 Oct;64(2):139-43.

Figueredo VM. The time has come for physicians to take notice: the impact of psychosocial stressors on the heart. Am J Med. 2009 Aug;122(8):704-12.

Harrison ME, Vogel ER, Morrogh-Bernard HC, van Noordwijk MA. Methods for calculating activity budgets compared: a case study using orangutans. Am J Primatol. 2009 Apr;71(4):353-8.

Hohmann G, Mundry R, Deschner T. The relationship between socio-sexual behavior and salivary cortisol in bonobos: tests of the tension regulation hypothesis. Am J Primatol. 2009 Mar;71(3):223-32.

Kutsukake N, Ikeda K, Honma S, Teramoto M, Mori Y, Hayasaka I, Yamamoto R, Ishida T, Yoshikawa Y, Hasegawa T. Validation of salivary cortisol and testosterone assays in chimpanzees by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Am J Primatol. 2009 Aug;71(8):696-706.

Lukacs JR. Markers of physiological stress in juvenile bonobos (Pan paniscus): are enamel hypoplasia, skeletal development and tooth size interrelated? Am J Phys Anthropol. 2009 Jul;139(3):339-52.

Maggioncalda AN, Czekala NM, Sapolsky RM. Male orangutan subadulthood: a new twist on the relationship between chronic stress and developmental arrest. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2002 May;118(1):25-32.

Remis M. Effects of body size and social context on the arboreal activities of lowland gorillas in the Central African Republic. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1995 Aug;97(4):413-33.

Remis MJ. Ranging and grouping patterns of a western lowland gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Am J Primatol. 1997 43(2):111-33.

Robbins MM, Czekala NM. A preliminary investigation of urinary testosterone and cortisol levels in wild male mountain gorillas. Am J Primatol. 1997;43(1):51-64.

Stanford CB. The behavioral ecology of sympatric African apes: implications for understanding fossil hominoid ecology. Primates. 2006 Jan;47(1):91-101.

Scott J, Lockard JS. Captive female gorilla agonistic relationships with clumped defendable food resources. Primates. 2006 Jul;47(3):199-209.

Stoinski TS, Czekala N, Lukas KE, Maple TL. Urinary androgen and corticoid levels in captive, male Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla): age- and social group-related differences. Am J Primatol. 2002 Feb;56(2):73-87.

Taylor AB. Feeding behavior, diet, and the functional consequences of jaw form in orangutans, with implications for the evolution of Pongo. J Hum Evol. 2006 Apr;50(4):377-93.

Tutin CE, Fernandez M, Rogers ME, Williamson EA, McGrew WC. Foraging profiles of sympatric lowland gorillas and chimpanzees in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon. Philos  Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1991 Nov 29;334(1270):179-85; discussion 185-6.

Van Schaik CP, Knott CD. Geographic variation in tool use on Neesia fruits in orangutans. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2001 Apr;114(4):331-42.

Vogel ER, Haag L, Mitra-Setia T, van Schaik CP, Dominy NJ. Foraging and ranging behavior during a fallback episode: Hylobates albibarbis and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii compared. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2009 Dec;140(4):716-26.

Watts DP. Strategies of habitat use by mountain gorillas. Folia Primatol (Basel). 1991;56(1):1-16.

Whitten PL, Stavisky R, Aureli F, Russell E. Response of fecal cortisol to stress in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Am J Primatol. 1998;44(1):57-69.

Wobber V, Hare B, Maboto J, Lipson S, Wrangham R, Ellison PT. Differential changes in steroid hormones before competition in bonobos and chimpanzees. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jul 13;107(28):12457-62.

Osteoarthritis in Apes:

Jurmain R. Degenerative joint disease in African great apes: an evolutionary perspective. J Hum Evol. 2000 Aug;39(2):185-203.

Jurmain R. Trauma, degenerative disease, and other pathologies among the Gombe chimpanzees. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1989 Oct;80(2):229-37.

Rothschild BM, Woods RJ. Erosive arthritis and spondyloarthropathy in Old World primates. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1992 Jul;88(3):389-400.

Rothschild BM, Rühli FJ. Comparison of arthritis characteristics in lowland Gorilla gorilla and mountain Gorilla beringei. Am J Primatol. 2005 Jul;66(3):205-18.

Rothschild BM, Rühli FJ. Etiology of reactive arthritis in Pan paniscus, P. troglodytes troglodytes, and P. troglodytes schweinfurthii. Am J Primatol. 2005 Jul;66(3):219-31.

Rothschild BM, Woods RJ. Inflammatory arthritis in Pongo. J Med Primatol. 1996 Dec;25(6):414-8.


Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium. Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome. Nature. 2005 Sep 1;437(7055):69-87.

Ho E, Bhindi R, Ashley EA, Figtree GA. Genetic analysis in cardiovascular disease: a clinical perspective. Cardiol Rev. 2011 Mar-Apr;19(2):81-9.

Kenny DE, Cambre RC, Alvarado TP, et al. Aortic Dissection: An Important Cardiovascular Disease in Captive Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). J Zoo Wild An Med 1994; 25: 561-568.

Locke DP, Hillier LW, Warren WC, et al. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes. Nature. 2011 Jan 27;469(7331):529-33.

Wheeler M, Pavlovic A, DeGoma E, Salisbury H, Brown C, Ashley EA. A new era in clinical genetic testing for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2009 Dec;2(4):381-91.

Obesity in Apes:

Brent L. Feeding enrichment and body weight in captive chimpanzees. J Med Primatol. 1995 Jan;24(1):12-6.

Deschner T, Kratzsch J, Hohmann G. Urinary C-peptide as a method for monitoring body mass changes in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus). Horm Behav. 2008 Nov;54(5):620-6.

Emery Thompson M, Knott CD. Urinary C-peptide of insulin as a non-invasive marker of energy balance in wild orangutans. Horm Behav. 2008 Apr;53(4):526-35.

Gresl TA, Colman RJ, Havighurst TC, Allison DB, Schoeller DA, Kemnitz JW. Dietary restriction and beta-cell sensitivity to glucose in adult male rhesus monkeys. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003 Jul;58(7):598-610.

Pontzer H, Raichlen DA, Shumaker RW, Ocobock C, Wich SA. Metabolic adaptation for low energy throughput in orangutans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 10;107(32):14048-52.

Rosenblum IY, Barbolt TA, Howard CF Jr. Diabetes mellitus in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). J Med Primatol. 1981;10(2-3):93-101.

Russon AE. Life history: the energy-efficient orangutan. Curr Biol. 2010 Nov 23;20(22):R981-3.

Sherry DS, Ellison PT. Potential applications of urinary C-peptide of insulin for comparative energetics research. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007 May;133(1):771-8.

Obesity, metabolic syndrome and heart disease in humans:

Hall JE, da Silva AA, do Carmo JM, Dubinion J, Hamza S, Munusamy S, Smith G, Stec DE. Obesity-induced hypertension: role of sympathetic nervous system, leptin, and melanocortins. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 4;285(23):17271-6.

Kotsis V, Stabouli S, Papakatsika S, Rizos Z, Parati G. Mechanisms of obesity-induced hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2010 May;33(5):386-93.

Knobler H, Abbasi F, Lamendola C, Reaven GM. Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease risk factors in subjects with prehypertension. Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2011 Jan;8(1):43-6.

Liu A, Abbasi F, Reaven G. Adiposity indices in the prediction of metabolic abnormalities associated with cardiovascular disease in non-diabetic adults. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Mar 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Naumnik B, Myśliwiec M. Renal consequences of obesity. Med Sci Monit. 2010 Aug 1;16(8):RA163-70.

Reaven GM. The metabolic syndrome: time to get off the merry-go-round? J Intern Med. 2011 Feb;269(2):127-36.

Roopakala MS, Suresh A, Ashtalakshmi, Srinath, Ashok, Giridhar, Anand, Silvia WD. Anthropometric measurements as predictors of intraabdominal fat thickness. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Jul-Sep;53(3):259-64.

Videan EN, Fritz J, Murphy J. Development of guidelines for assessing obesity in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Biol. 2007 Mar;26(2):93-104.


Kenny DE, Cambre RC, Alvarado TP,  Prowten AW, Allchurch AF, Marks SK and Zuba JR.  Aortic Dissection: An Important Cardiovascular Disease in Captive Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). J Zoo Wildlife Med 1994; 25: 561-568.

Miller CL, Schwartz AM, Barnhart JS, et al. Chronic hypertension with subsequent congestive heart failure in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). J Zoo Wildlife Med 1999; 30: 262-267

Sacks FM, Campos H. Dietary therapy in hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 3;362(22):2102-12.

Savica V, Bellinghieri G, Kopple JD. The effect of nutrition on blood pressure. Annu Rev Nutr. 2010 Aug 21;30:365-401.

Schulman FY, Farb A, Virmani R,..  Fibrosing cardiomyopathy in captive Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the United States: a retrospective study. J Zoo Wildlife Med 1995; 26: 43-51

Stout C, Lemmon WB. Hypertensive-like vascular lesions in a chimpanzee. Exp Mol Pathol. 1971 Apr;14(2):151-7.

Chronic Diseases:

Guarnieri G, Zanetti M, Vinci P, Cattin MR, Pirulli A, Barazzoni R. Metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr. 2010 Sep;20(5 Suppl):S19-23.

Hörl WH. Hypertension in end-stage renal disease: different measures and their prognostic significance. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010 Oct;25(10):3161-6.

Kopple JD. Obesity and chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr. 2010 Sep;20(5 Suppl):S29-30.

McCullough PA, Verrill TA. Cardiorenal interaction: appropriate treatment of cardiovascular risk factors to improve outcomes in chronic kidney disease. Postgrad Med. 2010 Mar;122(2):25-34.

O’Neill WM Jr, Hammar SP, Ramirez G, Bloomer HA, Moore JG. Acute pyelonephritis in an adult gorilla (Gorilla gorilla). Lab Anim Sci. 1978 Feb;28(1):100-1.

Rosenblum IY, Coulston F. Impaired renal function in diabetic chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Exp Mol Pathol. 1983 Apr;38(2):224-9.

Ritz E. Hypertension and kidney disease. Clin Nephrol. 2010 Nov;74 Suppl 1:S39-43.

Robinson PT, Bernirschke K. Congestive heart failure and nephritis in an adult gorilla. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1980 Nov 1;177(9):937-8.

Rodriguez-Iturbe B, Johnson RJ. The role of renal microvascular disease and interstitial inflammation in salt-sensitive hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2010 Oct;33(10):975-80.

Rosenblum IY, Coulston F. Impaired renal function in diabetic chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Exp Mol Pathol. 1983 Apr;38(2):224-9.

Schmidt RE. Systemic pathology of chimpanzees. J Med Primatol. 1975;7(5):274-318.

Zoccali C. Renal impairment: a risk factor for ischemic heart disease. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2006 Apr;6(2):221-5.

Cardiovascular Disease (Chimpanzees):

Binhazim AA, Alford P, Miller M. Ventricular septal defect in an infant chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). J Med Primatol. 1994 Aug;23(6):362-4.

Blaton V, Peeters H. The nonhuman primates as models for studying human atherosclerosis: studies on the chimpanzee, the baboon and the rhesus macacus. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1976;67(00):33-64.

Doane CJ, Lee DR, Sleeper MM. Electrocardiogram abnormalities in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Comp Med. 2006 Dec;56(6):512-8.

Douglas JD, Schmidt RE, Prine JR. Vegetative endocarditis in a chimpanzee. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1970 Sep 1;157(5):736-41.

Ely JJ, Bishop MA, Lammey ML, Sleeper MM, Steiner JM, Lee DR. Use of biomarkers of collagen types I and III fibrosis metabolism to detect cardiovascular and renal disease in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Comp Med. 2010;60(2):154-8.

Gamble KC, North MCK, Backues K Ross SR.  Pathologic review of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): 1990-2003 in Proceedings. Am Assoc Zoo Vet 2004; 565-570.

Hansen JF, Alford PL, Keeling ME. Diffuse myocardial fibrosis and congestive heart failure in an adult male chimpanzee. Vet Pathol. 1984 Sep;21(5):529-31.

Lammey ML, Baskin GB, Gigliotti AP, Lee DR, Ely JJ, Sleeper MM. Interstitial myocardial fibrosis in a captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population. Comp Med. 2008 Aug;58(4):389-94.

Lammey ML, Lee DR, Ely JJ, Sleeper MM. Sudden cardiac death in 13 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). J Med Primatol. 2008 Feb;37 Suppl 1:39-43.

Robel-Tillig E, Eulenberger K, Knüpfer M, Junhold J, Vogtmann C, Kiess W. Treatment of myocardial dysfunction and pulmonary oedema in an infant chimpanzee.

Schmidt RE. Systemic pathology of chimpanzees. J Med Primatol. 1975;7(5):274-318.

Seiler BM, Dick EJ Jr, Guardado-Mendoza R, VandeBerg JL, Williams JT, Mubiru JN, Hubbard GB. Spontaneous heart disease in the adult chimpanzee (Pan

troglodytes). J Med Primatol. 2009 Feb;38(1):51-8.

Sleeper MM, Doane CJ, Langner PH, Curtis S, Avila K, Lee DR. Successful treatment of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in an adult chimpanzee (Pan

troglodytes). Comp Med. 2005 Feb;55(1):80-4.

Sleeper MM. Is it acute heart failure or sudden cardiac death in the chimpanzee? J Med Primatol. 2009 Apr;38(2):75; author reply 76.

Stout C, Lemmon WB. Hypertensive-like vascular lesions in a chimpanzee. Exp Mol Pathol. 1971 Apr;14(2):151-7.

Varki N, Anderson D, ,Herndon JG, et al. Heart disease is common in humans and chimpanzees, but is caused by different pathological processes. Evolutionary Applications 2009; 2: 101-112.

Zoccali C, Mallamaci F. The salt epidemic: old and new concerns. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2000 Jun;10(3):168-71.

Cardiovascular Disease (Gorillas):

Baitchman EJ, Calle PP, Clippinger TL, Deem SL, James SB, Raphael BL, Cook RA. Preliminary evaluation of blood lipid profiles in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2006 Jun;37(2):126-9.

Berntson GG, Boysen ST. Cardiac startle and orienting responses in the great apes. Behav Neurosci. 1984 Oct;98(5):914-8.

Brown CS, Finnegan JM. Resting heart rate and tympanic temperature in operant conditioned western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2007 Jun;38(2):345-7.

Gray R, O’Neal RM, Jordan FB. Sudden death associated with atherosclerosis in a gorilla.  J. Am Vet Med Assoc. 1981; 179: 1306-1307.

Hall-Craggs EC. The blood vessels of the heart of Gorilla gorilla beringei. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1961 Dec;19:373-7.

Harris DM, Kutinsky IB, Myers GE, Barrie MT. Treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), in Proceedings. Am Assoc Zoo Vet 2009:127.

McNamara T, Dolensek EP, Liu S and Dierenfeld ED.  Cardiomyopathy associated with vitamin E deficiency in two mountain lowland gorillas, in Proceedings. Int Conf Zool Avian Med 1:493.

Scott NA, McManamon R, Strobert E, Cipolla GD, Tarazona N, Swenson RB.1995. In vivo diagnosis of coronary artery disease in a Western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 26 (1): 139 – 143.

Meehan TP, Lowenstine LJ. Causes of mortality in captive lowland gorillas: a survey of the SSP population, in Proceedings. Am Assoc Zoo Vet 1994; 216-218.

Miller CL, Schwartz AM, Barnhart JS Jr, Bell MD. Chronic hypertension with subsequent congestive heart failure in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). J Zoo Wildl Med. 1999 Jun;30(2):262-7.

Robinson PT, Bernirschke K. Congestive heart failure and nephritis in an adult gorilla. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1980 Nov 1;177(9):937-8.

Rush EM, Ogburn AL, Hall J, Rush D, Lau Y, Dillon AR, Garmon L, Tillson DM, Kay GN. Surgical implantation of a cardiac resynchronization therapy device in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with fibrosing cardiomyopathy. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2010 Sep;41(3):395-403.

Steiner PE, Rasmussen TB, Fisher LE. Neuropathy, cardiopathy, hemosiderosis, and testicular atrophy in Gorilla gorilla. AMA Arch Pathol. 1955 Jan;59(1):5-25.

Cardiovascular Disease (Orangutans):

Ågren E, Wallner J. Myocardial fibrosis in an orangutan, in Proceedings. Am Assoc Zoo Vet 2001; 132.

Cook RA, Sheppardson P, McGinn M, Roskop ML, Wong BY. Evaluation of a ventricular septal defect in an orangutan: a case report. J Med Primatol.


Greenberg MJ, Janssen DL, Jamieson SW, Rothman A, Frankville DD, Cooper SD, Kriett JM, Adsit PK, Shima AL, Morris PJ, Sutherland-Smith M. Surgical repair of an atrial septal defect in a juvenile Sumatran orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus sumatraensis). J Zoo Wildl Med. 1999 Jun;30(2):256-61.

Lowenstine LJ, McManamon R, Bonar C, et al. Preliminary results of a survey of United States and Canadian orangutan mortalities in the North American SSP population from 1980 to March 2008, in Proceedings. Am Assoc Zoo Vet 2008; 40.

Miyagi J, Tsuhako K, Kinjo T, Iwamasa T, Kamada Y, Kinju T, Koyanagi Y. Coxsackievirus B4 myocarditis in an orangutan. Vet Pathol. 1999 Sep;36(5):452-6.

Robbins PK, Pye GW, Sutherland-Smith M, Papendick R, Greenberg M, Levy D, Madani M. Successful transabdominal subxiphoid pericardiostomy to relieve chronic pericardial effusion in a Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelli). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2009 Sep;40(3):564-7.

Cardiovascular Disease (Bonobos):

Jones P, Cordonnier N, Mahamba C, Burt FJ, Rakotovao F, Swanepoel R, André C, Dauger S, Bakkali Kassimi L. Encephalomyocarditis virus mortality in semi-wild bonobos (Pan panicus). J Med Primatol. 2011 Feb 16. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0684.2010.00464.x. [Epub ahead of print]

Jones P, Mahamba C, Rest J, André C. Fatal inflammatory heart disease in a bonobo (Pan paniscus). J Med Primatol. 2005 Feb;34(1):45-9. PubMed PMID: 15667344.

Wann S. On call at the Wisconsin Heart Hospital. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009 Dec 29;55(1):77-8.

Cardiovascular Disease (Aortic Dissections):

Kenny DE, Cambre RC, Alvarado TP,  Prowten AW, Allchurch AF, Marks SK and Zuba JR.  Aortic Dissection: An Important Cardiovascular Disease in Captive Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). J Zoo Wildlife Med 1994; 25: 561-568.

Milewicz DM, Regalado ES, Guo DC. Treatment guidelines for thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections based on the underlying causative gene. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010 Dec;140(6 Suppl):S2-4; discussion S45-51.

Nathan DP, Xu C, Gorman JH 3rd, Fairman RM, Bavaria JE, Gorman RC, Chandran KB, Jackson BM. Pathogenesis of acute aortic dissection: a finite element stress analysis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011 Feb;91(2):458-63.

Cardiovascular Disease (Myocardial Fibrosis, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, and Cardiomyopathy):

Schulman FY, Farb A, Virmani R, Montali R.  Fibrosing cardiomyopathy in captive Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the United States: a retrospective study. J Zoo Wildlife Med 1995; 26: 43-51

Barry SP, Townsend PA. What causes a broken heart–molecular insights into heart failure. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2010;284:113-79.

Bui AL, Horwich TB, Fonarow GC. Epidemiology and risk profile of heart failure. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2011 Jan;8(1):30-41.

Cirino AL, Ho C. Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Overview. 2008 Aug 5 [updated 2009 May 26]. In: Pagon RA, Bird TD, Dolan CR, Stephens K, editors. GeneReviews [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-. Available from

Cymet T. Genetics of cardiovascular disease. Compr Ther. 2010;36:18-9.

Díez J. Diagnosis and treatment of myocardial fibrosis in hypertensive heart disease. Circ J. 2008;72 Suppl A:A8-12.

Haque AK, Gadre S, Taylor J, Haque SA, Freeman D, Duarte A. Pulmonary and cardiovascular complications of obesity: an autopsy study of 76 obese subjects. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008 Sep;132(9):1397-404.

Ho CY. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: preclinical and early phenotype. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2009 Dec;2(4):462-70.

Ho E, Bhindi R, Ashley EA, Figtree GA. Genetic analysis in cardiovascular disease: a clinical perspective. Cardiol Rev. 2011 Mar-Apr;19(2):81-9.

Ho CY, López B, Coelho-Filho OR, Lakdawala NK, Cirino AL, Jarolim P, Kwong R, González A, Colan SD, Seidman JG, Díez J, Seidman CE. Myocardial fibrosis as an early manifestation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med. 2010 Aug 5;363(6):552-63.

Jomova K, Valko M. Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human disease. Toxicology. 2011 Mar 14. [Epub ahead of print]

Mladenka P, Hrdina R, Bobrovová Z, Semecky V, Vávrová J, Holecková M, Palicka V, Mazurová Y, Nachtigal P. Cardiac biomarkers in a model of acute catecholamine cardiotoxicity. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2009 Oct;28(10):631-40.

Murarka S, Movahed MR. Diabetic cardiomyopathy. J Card Fail. 2010 Dec;16(12):971-9.

Nalivaiko E. Animal models of psychogenic cardiovascular disorders: what we can learn from them and what we cannot. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2011 Feb;38(2):115-25.

Nussinovitch U, de Carvalho JF, Pereira RM, Shoenfeld Y. Glucocorticoids and the cardiovascular system: state of the art. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16(32):3574-85.

Papadopoulos DP, Papademetriou V. Hypertrophic and hypertensive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy–a true association? Angiology. 2010 Feb-Mar;61(1):92-9. Epub 2009 Feb 23.

Pieske B, Wachter R. Impact of diabetes and hypertension on the heart. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2008 Jul;23(4):340-9.

Puntmann VO, Jahnke C, Gebker R, Schnackenburg B, Fox KF, Fleck E, Paetsch I. Usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging to distinguish hypertensive and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 2010 Oct 1;106(7):1016-22.

Raman SV. The hypertensive heart. An integrated understanding informed by imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010 Jan 12;55(2):91-6. Review.

Sipola P, Magga J, Husso M, Jääskeläinen P, Peuhkurinen K, Kuusisto J. Cardiac MRI assessed left ventricular hypertrophy in differentiating hypertensive heart disease from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy attributable to a sarcomeric gene mutation. Eur Radiol. 2011 Jan 28. [Epub ahead of print]

van Veen L. [Aortic rupture in poultry: a review]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 1999 Apr 15;124(8):244-7. Review.

Videan EN, Heward CB, Chowdhury K, Plummer J, Su Y, Cutler RG. Comparison of biomarkers of oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease in humans and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Comp Med. 2009 Jun;59(3):287-96.

Wheeler M, Pavlovic A, DeGoma E, Salisbury H, Brown C, Ashley EA. A new era in clinical genetic testing for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2009 Dec;2(4):381-91.

Yalçin F, Yalçin H, Abraham T. Stress-induced regional features of left ventricle is related to pathogenesis of clinical conditions with both acute and chronic stress. Int J Cardiol. 2010 Nov 19;145(2):367-8.

Yip GW, Fung JW, Tan YT, Sanderson JE. Hypertension and heart failure: a dysfunction of systole, diastole or both? J Hum Hypertens. 2009 May;23(5):295-306.

Zhou Y, Bourcy K, Kang YJ. Copper-induced regression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is associated with enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 signalling pathway. Cardiovasc Res. 2009 Oct 1;84(1):54-63.